Disease is one of many factors advanced to explain the fluctuations of grouse populations, but no profound study of natural disease losses in Tetraonidae exists. The literature contains frequent references to THE grouse disease, although many potential pathogens are listed in numerous surveys and limited investigations, and the relevant data indicate that no single etiologic agent is universally responsible for disease in grouse. Few experimental infections or related studies on parasite biology have been attempted. Well-trained personnel and specialized facilities are required for research and analysis (1) to develop new methods of interpretation to be used with existing census techniques, (2) to conduct intensive studies of ecological factors of host and habitat, and (3) to establish base lines for recognition of deviations from the norm. Disease in wildlife can be controlled only through management procedures based on information concerning the biology of pathogens, hosts, and environments. It cannot be studied as a separate entity if its impact on survival or population fluctuations of grouse is to be correctly assessed.