Summary: The history of field investigations of the effects of DDT on wildlife is reviewed briefly, from the initial studies in 1945 through the more recent studies of the effects of the large-scale programs for spruce-budworm control and gypsy-moth eradication. DDT dosages and procedures that are recommended for protection of wildlife are reviewed. Effects of aldrin, heptachlor, and toxaphene are discussed in connection with the grasshopper and Mormon cricket control programs. Delayed and indirect effects of chemical treatments are emphasized as an important current problem. Cited in this connection are fish losses in the Yellowstone and Miramichi rivers and losses of wildlife from eating earthworms a year after treatment of the area with DDT. Currently recommended procedures to safeguard wildlife in pesticidal programs are listed.
Additional publication details
Effects on fish and wildlife of chemical treatments of large areas