Various studies (Mulla et al. 1963; Ferguson and Gilbert 1967; Cooke 1973) have examined the effects of pesticides on anuran amphibians, but the routes of contaminant uptake by transformed amphibians have not been evaluated. The need of frogs and toads to imbibe water from natural surface water would seem to make them vulnerable to uptake from this source. Fish are known to accumulate pesticides from both food and water (Jarvinen et al. 1977). Toads are more terrestrial and tend to lose water less readily than most other amphibians (Thorson and Svihla 1943); hence they should he a conservative estimator of the potential for uptake of pesticides from water. Methoxychlor is an analogue of DDT and has been widely used to replace it. It is a good model of many pesticides in current use in its low persistence in animal tissues (Gardner and Bailey 1975), and its long half life in water (Wolfe et al. 1977). It is also suitable for study because of its relatively low toxicity to amphibians (Kaplan and Overpeck 1964) and its easily detected residues. In the present study we measured the accumulation of methoxychlor from food and water in a preliminary evaluation of the two routes of exposure.
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Title||Uptake of methoxychlor from food and water by the American toad (Bufo americanus)|
|Series title||Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology|
|Contributing office(s)||Patuxent Wildlife Research Center|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|