Effects of Krenite? brush control agent (fosamine ammonium) on embryonic development in mallards and bobwhite

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry



Fosamine ammonium (Krenite) is a highly water-soluble carbamoylphosphonate herbicide used to control woody brush. It has been reported to be teratogenic to avian embryos following spray application of the eggs. The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of Krenite was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). At 96 h of development, eggs were briefly immersed in distilled water or in Krenite formulation in distilled water at concentrations of 1.5, 6.5, or 30% fosamine ammonium. At 6.5% active ingredient (a.i.), Krenite reduced hatching success in bobwhite and mallards to 85 and 33% of that in the distilled-water controls. At 30% a.i., Krenite caused 95 to 100% mortality in both species by the time of hatching. Early embryonic growth was impaired by 30% Krenite in both species. There was no evidence of teratogenesis of the axial skeleton, as reported previously in chickens and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Most abnormal embryos had severe edema and some stunting. Mallard hatchlings from the 1.5 and 6.5% Krenite groups weighed significantly less than controls and had lower plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, with elevated plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was unaffected by Krenite in embryos and hatchlings.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Effects of Krenite? brush control agent (fosamine ammonium) on embryonic development in mallards and bobwhite
Series title Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume 7
Issue 1
Year Published 1988
Language English
Contributing office(s) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Description 69-75
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
First page 69
Last page 75
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