Plasma concentrations and the biological half-lives of cephalothin and cephalexin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus v virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), hybrid rosybill ducks (Netta sp), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromiceius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of the study, cephalothin sodium was given IM in a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (av 18 micrograms/ml) at 0.5 hour and were measurable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalothin was 16 to 54 minutes; the half-life varied directly with increased species body weight, with the exception of the ducks studied. In the 2nd phase, cephalexin monohydrate was given orally in doses of 25, 35, and 50 mg/kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (av 20 micrograms/ml) at 0.5 to 1 hour and were measurable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalexin was 36 to 126 minutes. In the 3rd phase, differences in plasma concentrations and the half-lives of cephalexin between fed quail and fasted quail were insignificant. Dosage regimens for cephalothin of 100 mg/kg 4 times a day and for cephalexin of 35 to 50 mg/kg 4 times a day would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in large birds (pigeons, cranes, and emus). These same doses, administered every 2 to 3 hours, would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in smaller birds (quail, ducks).
Additional publication details
Pharmocokinetics of cephalothin and cephalexin in selected avian species