Shooter and shotshell effectiveness were tested during the 1979 waterfowl season at the Schell-Osage Wildlife Management Area (WMA), Missouri. Hunters who participated in the study bagged 1,967 ducks with 10,587 shots. No significant differences in bagging, crippling, or missing rates were measured among 4 Winchester 12 gauge loads: #4 buffered and unbuffered lead and #4 and #2 steel. Shooter effectiveness declined as distance increased. Crippling rates were not influenced by distance. Hunters reported good shotshell performance for all shells but indicated negative attitudes toward steel shot.