The acute toxicities of 13 granular anticholinesterase insecticides were compared with their technical grade active ingredients by administering single oral doses of chemical to adult Northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and evaluating resultant LD50 values and dose-response curves. Similar tests with ringed turtledoves (Streptopelia risoria) were conducted with five of the granular formulations to check for interspecific differences. The test chemicals were Amaze 15G (isofenphos), Counter 15G (terbufos), Dasanit 15G (fensulfothion), Diazinon 14G (diazinon), Di-Syston 15G (disulfoton), Dyfonate 20G (fonofos), Furadan 10G (carbofuran), Lorsban 15G (chlorpyrifos), Nemacur 15G (fenamiphos), Parathion 10G (parathion), Tattoo 10G (bendiocarb), Temik 15G (aldicarb), and Thimet 15G (phorate). Information is also presented on dose-response relations and their use in hazard assessment, granule size and hazard, response patterns, and toxic signs. The general conclusions were: (1) The organophosphates (fenamiphos and fensulfothion) and the carbamate (aldicarb) were the most toxic of the insecticides tested. (2) The granular formulation and its technical grade active ingredient were of equivalent toxicity, or the granular was significantly less toxic. (3) The dose-response curve enhances hazard assessment. (4) Ingestion of a single granule of Temik 15G was shown to be life threatening to bobwhite-sized birds, and ingestion of fewer than five granules could be lethal to sparrow-sized birds for Dasanit 15G, Diazinon 14G, Dyfonate 20G, Furadan 15G, and Nemacur 15G. (5) It is therefore suggested that the hazard associated with granular insecticides may be more dependent on which species (cf. size and feeding behavior) inhabit a treated area than on the actual application rate.
Additional publication details
Toxicity of anticholinesterase insecticides to birds: Technical grade versus granular formulations