Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) pairs (2-4) and broods (1-2) have occurred sporadically each year during recent (1977-86) waterfowl investigations in Maine. State-wide brood counts (1956-1986) for 36 wetlands in Maine depict an average increase of 1-3 mallard broods. Broods occurred mostly on man-made impoundments. Numbers of mallards captured during banding (as a percentage of combined mallards, American black ducks [Anas rubripes] and hybrids) have increased from 4.3 to 28.7% in southern Maine, 3.6 to 9.1% in central Maine, and 0.5 to 2.6% in eastern Maine during the last 3 or 4 decades. The percentage of mallards captured in northern Maine in the last decade averaged 11.8%. The occurrence of mallard x black duck hybrids handled during pre-season banding has been variable among decades, but < 2.0% for all the banding sites. Mixed-species pairs, usually a male mallard and a female black duck have been recorded. . Survival of mallard ducklings to fledging (4/brood) approximates that of black ducks, but our sample of broods (N=7) was small. Paired, male, black ducks aggressively drove away intruding mallards and conspecifics. The role of mallard releases and small marsh construction is implicated in the establishment of the 657 mallard pairs estimated as breeding in Maine.