Research findings of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, State agencies and independent research workers in Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Mass., Mich., Mont., N. Dak., Tex., and Wis. are summarized in this report together with recommendations for reducing damage from pest control operations. Major topics discussed are: Scope of Pesticide-Wildlife Problem; Effects on Wildlife-General; Laboratory Studies and Toxicology; Direct and Indirect Effects of Pesticides on Wildlife; Recent Pesticide Legislation; Value of Wildlife; and Recommendations for Safeguarding Wildlife Values during Pest Control. To avoid undue hazards to wildlife, applications must not exceed the toxicity equivalent of the following concentrations of DDT to the respective forms of wildlife: 0.1 pounds of DDT/acre for crustaceans; 0.2 for fish; 1.0 for amphibians; 2.0 for reptiles and birds; and 5.0 for most mammals. Other suggestions are: 1) Chemical treatment should be used only when entomological research has proved it to be necessary; 2) Before pesticides are used, the effects on different kinds of animals and on animals living in different habitats should be known and carefully considered; 3) Only minimum quantities of chemicals necessary to achieve adequate control of pests should be applied; 4) Pesticides should not be applied to areas that are any larger than is necessary and the chemicals that are used should be the ones whose effects are no more long-lasting than necessary; 5) Whenever possible, chemicals should be applied at the seasons of the year when wildlife damage will be least; 6) Conscientious effort should be made to be sure that pesticides are applied at no more than the intended rates and that no areas receive double doses. Alternates to chemical control are suggested. Among these are biological control, modified agricultural practices, destruction of insect wintering quarters, and the manipulation of water levels.
Additional publication details
Federal Government Series
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Pesticide-Wildlife Review: 1959