Although uniquely capable of measuring multiple redox constituents nearly simultaneously with no or minimal sample pretreatment, voltammetry is currently underutilized in characterizing redox conditions in aquatic and terrestrial systems. Investigation of undisturbed media such as pore water requires a solid-state electrode, and such electrodes can be difficult to fabricate reproducibly. An approach to determine the concentrations of electroactive constituents using indirectly calibrated electrodes has been developed, but the protocol for and accuracy of this approach—the pilot ion method—has not been documented in detail.
A detailed procedure for testing electrode quality is provided, and the application and limitations of the pilot ion method have been documented. To quantify Fe(II) and Mn(II), subtraction of non-linear baseline functions from voltammetric signals produced better calibration curves than did linear baselines, enabled lower detection limits and reliable deconvolution of overlapping signals, and was successfully applied to sediment pore water signals. We observed that electrode sensitivities often vary by tens of percent, and that the sensitivity declines over time. The ratio of calibration slopes of Mn(II) to Fe(II) varied by no more than 11% from one Hg/Au electrode to another and Fe(II) concentrations predicted by the Mn(II) pilot ion were, on average, 13% different from their actual values. However, concentration predictions by the pilot ion method were worse for less than 15 μM Fe(II) (46% different on average). The ratio of calibration slopes of Mn(II) to S(−II) varied by almost 20% from one Hg/Au electrode to another, and S(−II) predicted concentrations were as much as 58% different from their actual values. These predictions of Fe(II) and S(−II) concentrations indicate that the accuracy of the pilot ion method depends on how independent calibration slope ratios are from the electrode used. At medium-to-high concentration for the ocean, naturally derived dissolved organic carbon did not significantly affect the baseline-corrected electrode response of Mn(II) and Fe(II), but did significantly affect the response of S(−II).
Despite their intrinsic variability, Hg/Au electrodes fabricated by hand can be used to quantify O2, S(−II), Fe(II), and Mn(II) without calibrating every electrode for every constituent of interest. The pilot ion method can achieve accuracies to within 20% or less, provided that the underlying principle—the independence of slope ratios—is demonstrated for all voltammetric techniques used, and effects of the physicochemical properties of the system on voltammetric signals are addressed through baseline subtraction.
Additional publication details
How to overcome inter-electrode variability and instability to quantify dissolved oxygen, Fe(II), mn(II), and S(−II) in undisturbed soils and sediments using voltammetry