The piscicides rotenone and antimycin are commonly used to eradicate unwanted fish populations. However, the relationships (if present) between their toxicities and fish sizes are unknown and could be especially important when bioassay fish are used to detect piscicide presence and effectiveness. Size-mediated toxicity could lead to either excessive or inadequate piscicide applications if bioassay fish are larger or smaller than the fish being eradicated. The relationships between time to death and weight of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (0.7–574.0 g) at an antimycin concentration of 7.5 μg/L and a rotenone concentration of 12.5 μg/L were determined. Antimycin took significantly longer than rotenone to kill rainbow trout at concentrations typically used in eradication projects. Significant positive relationships existed between fish size and time to death for rotenone and antimycin exposures and were probably caused by size-mediated differences in metabolic rate; however, these relationships accounted for less than 21% of the variation in time to death. Smaller fish appeared to be affected by the chemicals more quickly, but their deaths did not consistently occur before the deaths of larger fish.