Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Raptors

By:  and 
Edited by: R. Eric Miller and Murray E. Fowler



The use of analgesia has become standard, and appropriate, practice in avian medicine. As in mammals, pain control in avian patients is usually accomplished with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used singly or in combination for a multimodal approach. Despite their usefulness, widespread use, and relative safety in clinical use, few controlled studies in birds have been conducted on efficacy, safety, and dosing. The guidelines for the use of NSAIDs in raptors and other birds have mainly been empirical. More recently, NSAIDs in free-living raptors have emerged as a major conservation issue with the discovery that diclofenac sodium was responsible for the population crash of three species of Gyps vultures in southern Asia. In this context, residues of veterinary NSAIDs in domestic animals are now considered environmental contaminants that can be significantly toxic to vultures and possibly other avian scavengers. Ironically, the disaster with Asian vultures has led to a considerable body of research on NSAIDs in raptors to the benefit of clinicians who now have scientific information available to help assess dosing, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of NSAIDs in their raptor patients.

Additional publication details

Publication type Book chapter
Publication Subtype Book Chapter
Title Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Raptors
Chapter 46
DOI 10.1016/B978-1-4377-1986-4.00046-9
Volume 7
Year Published 2012
Language English
Publisher Elselvier
Contributing office(s) National Wildlife Health Center
Description 6 p.
Larger Work Type Book
Larger Work Subtype Monograph
Larger Work Title Fowlers Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy, Volume 7.
First page 349
Last page 355
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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