Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography—thermospray mass spectrometric (HPLC—MS) characteristics of four sets of lactonic complexes (one 4-butyrolactones and three dilactone complexes) derived from antimycin A were investigated. Three types of 8-hydroxy analogues were also included in the study. Pairs of a–b structures isomeric at the 8-acyloxy ester side-chains were best separated with a high-efficiency octadecylsilica column prior to analysis by HPLC—MS. Mass spectra of the a–b pairs each with identical molecular weights exhibited virtually indistinguishable fragmentation patterns, although their relative intensities were not superimposable. In some cases, HPLC—MS of the title compounds yielded mass chromatograms showing the minor components more easily recognizable than the HPLC—UV counter parts because of the apparent higher ionization efficiency of the minor isomers and increased resolution of subcomponents in the MS system. Under the mobile phase conditions employed, analyte ionization occurred with variable degrees of gas phase ammonolysis depending upon the ammonia concentration of the buffer. Potential applicability of the on-line HPLC—MS technique for the characterization of components in mixtures of antimycin analogues and isomers is demonstrated.