The Moon plays an important role in the radiometric stability monitoring of the NASA Earth Observing System's (EOS) remote sensors. The MODIS and SeaWIFS are two of the key instruments for NASA's EOS missions. The MODIS Protoflight Model (PFM) on-board the Terra spacecraft and the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1) on-board the Aqua spacecraft were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002, respectively. They view the Moon through the Space View (SV) port approximately once a month to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of their Reflective Solar Bands (RSB). SeaWIFS was launched on-board the OrbView-2 spacecraft on August 1, 1997. The SeaWiFS lunar calibrations are obtained once a month at a nominal phase angle of 7??. The lunar irradiance observed by these instruments depends on the viewing geometry. The USGS photometric model of the Moon (the ROLO model) has been developed to provide the geometric corrections for the lunar observations. For MODIS, the lunar view responses with corrections for the viewing geometry are used to track the gain change for its reflective solar bands (RSB). They trend the system response degradation at the Angle Of Incidence (AOI) of sensor's SV port. With both the lunar observation and the on-board Solar Diffuser (SD) calibration, it is shown that the MODIS system response degradation is wavelength, mirror side, and AOI dependent. Time-dependent Response Versus Scan angle (RVS) Look-Up Tables (LUT) are applied in MODIS RSB calibration and lunar observations play a key role in RVS derivation. The corrections provided by the RVS in the Terra and Aqua MODIS data from the 412 nm band are as large as 16% and 13%, respectively. For SeaWIFS lunar calibrations, the spacecraft is pitched across the Moon so that the instrument views the Moon near nadir through the same optical path as it views the Earth. The SeaWiFS system gain changes for its eight bands are calibrated using the geometrically-corrected lunar observations. The radiometric corrections to the SeaWiFS data, after more than ten years on orbit, are 19% at 865 nm, 8% at 765 nm, and 1-3% in the other bands. In this report, the lunar calibration algorithms are reviewed and the RSB gain changes observed by the lunar observations are shown for all three sensors. The lunar observations for the three instruments are compared using the USGS photometric model. The USGS lunar model facilitates the cross calibration of instruments with different spectra bandpasses whose measurements of the Moon differ in time and observing geometry.
Additional publication details
MODIS and SeaWIFS on-orbit lunar calibration
Larger Work Title:
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering