Ten samples of mineral-matter residue were obtained by the radio-frequency low-temperature ashing of subbituminous and bituminous coals. The low-temperature ash samples were then heated progressively from 400 ??C to 1400 ??C at 100 ??C intervals. Mineral phases present at each temperature interval were determined by X-ray diffraction analyses. The minerals originally present in the coals (quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, gypsum, dolomite, and sphalerite) were all altered to higher temperature phases. Several of these phases, including kaolinite, metakaolinite, mullite, anhydrite, and anorthite, were found only in limited temperature ranges. Therefore the temperature of formation of the ashes in which they occur may be determined. Mineralogical differences were observed between coal samples from the Rocky Mountain Province, the Illinois Basin, and the Appalachians; and as a result of these mineralogical differences, different high-temperature phases resulted as the samples were heated. However, regional generalizations cannot be made until a greater number of samples have been studied. ?? 1976.