Studies of the distribution of and textural relationships among pyrite and marcasite in host rocks for a number of roll-type sedimentary U deposits have enabled identification of several generations of FeS2 minerals. A critical factor influencing mineral formation is the complex relationship of pH and the S species that are precursors of FeS2 minerals. The presence or absence of intrinsic organic matter for bacterial sulphate reduction also plays a key role. In deposits lacking such organic matter, the pre-ore is often euhedral pyrite and the ore-stage is marcasite. In contrast, in deposits containing organic matter the pre-ore is pyrite occurring as framboids or as replacements of plant material, and the ore-stage is also pyrite. These contrasting FeS2 assemblages and their respective modes of origin are consistent with previously proposed biogenic and nonbiogenic theories of the genesis of roll-type U deposits. -J.E.S.