In situ capture gamma-ray analysis in a coal seam using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in a close-fitting borehole has been reported previously. In order to check the accuracy of the method under adverse conditions, similar measurements were made by means of a small-diameter sonde in an oversize borehole in the Pittsburgh seam, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The hole was 5 times the diameter of the sonde, a ratio that substantially increased the contribution of water (hydrogen) to the total spectral count and reduced the size of the sample measured by the detector. The total natural count, the 40K,count, and the intensities of capture gamma rays from Si, Ca, H, and Al were determined as a function of depth above, through, and below the coal seam. From these logs, the depth and width of the coal seam and its partings were determined. Spectra were accumulated in the seam for 1 h periods by using neutron sources of different strengths. From the spectra obtained by means of several 252Cf neutron sources of different sizes, the ultimate elemental analysis and ash content were determined. The results were not as good as those obtained previously in a close-fitting borehole. However, the results did improve with successively larger source-to-detector distances, i.e.,as the count contribution due to hydrogen in the water decreased. It was concluded that in situ borehole analyses should be made in relatively close-fitting boreholes. ?? 1983.