Miocene paleoceanographic evolution exhibits major changes resulting from the opening and closing of passages, the subsequent changes in oceanic circulation, and development of major Antarctic glaciation. The consequences and timing of these events can be observed in variations in the distribution of deep-sea hiatuses, sedimentation patterns, and biogeographic distribution of planktic organisms. The main aspects of the present oceanic circulation system and sediment distribution pattern were established by 13.5 to 12.5 Ma (hiatus NH 3), coincident with the establishment of a major East Antarctic ice cap. -from Authors
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Paleoceanographic implications of Miocene deep-sea hiatuses.