A mineral-resource survey of the Madison Roadless Area in the Madison Range of southwestern Montana was made. The Madison Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of about 93,000 tons of sillimanite rock at the Placer Creek deposit and of about 83,000 tons of asbestos rock at the Karst deposit. The roadless area also has areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential; much of the phosphate is in thin deeply buried beds. An area near the south edge of the roadless area has a probable resource potential for copper and silver. The concentration of uranium-rich stream-sediment samples in the southwest part of the roadless area suggests that a further attempt to identify the source rocks might be justified.