Groundwater quality observation networks are examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, lognormal kriging provides estimates of the variable being sampled and a standard error of the estimate. The average and the maximum standard error within the network can be used to dynamically improve the network sampling efficiency or find a design able to assure a given reliability level. The approach does not require the formulation of any physical model for the aquifer or any actual sampling of hypothetical configurations. A case study is presented using the network monitoring salty water intrusion into the Llobregat delta confined aquifer, Barcelona, Spain. The variable chloride concentration used to trace the intrusion exhibits sudden changes within short distances which make the standard error fairly invariable to changes in sampling pattern and to substantial fluctuations in the number of wells. ?? 1988.
Additional publication details
Lognormal kriging for the assessment of reliability in groundwater quality control observation networks