Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions were measured in alkaline volcanic rocks (alkali basalt, ankaramite, nephelinite, phonolite, and trachyte) from the South Cook Islands (Aitutaki, Mauke, Rarotonga, Atiu, and Mangaia) and the Austral Islands (Rimatara and Rurutu). The results show that the Cook-Austral rocks have an extremely wide range in isotopic compositions of Pb: 206Pb 204Pb from 18.25 to 21.76, 207pb 204pb from 15.48 to 15.83, and sol208pb 204Pb from 38.37 to 40.62, whereas isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd are less variable. Isotopically, Mangaia, Rimatara, and Rurutu form one group (Mangaia group), which shows extremely radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions but near-MORB (mid-oceanic ridge basalts) values for Sr and Nd isotopic ratios. In contrast, samples from Aitutaki, Rarotonga, Mauke, and Atiu (Aitutaki group) have high 207Pb 204Pb and 208Pb 204Pb and moderately high 87Sr 86Sr (Dupal anomaly). The Aitutaki group could have been derived from heterogeneous mantle plumes, which rose from the enriched deep mantle (the almost primitive lower mantle or recycled continental and oceanic slabs). On the other hand, the Mangaia component could have been derived from the depleted upper mantle which may have been metasomatized with a CO2-rich fluid, as indicated by the near-MORB values of Sr and Nd isotopes. Although Pb isotopic data of the two groups cannot be distinguished from each other statistically, the end components of the Pb-Pb system do not match with those of the Nd-Sr system. Thus, the data must be explained by a multi-, at least three, component mixing model: the mantle plumes (Dupal component and a recycled oceanic slab), metasomatized upper mantle, and lithosphere. The K-Ar ages and isotopic characteristics of the Cook-Austral rocks indicate that if one mantle plume rises from the deep mantle in this region, it has separated into at least two segments on the way to the surface. ?? 1988.