Wetland studies of chemical input-output relationships have been the most dependent on hydrologic data of all wetland investigations; yet, very few of these studies have attempted to measure all components of a wetland's water balance. Usually, unmeasured components were calculated as the difference between measured inputs and outputs. Ground water frequently was overlooked. Chemical input-output investigations primarily were concerned with determining the amount of input retained in the wetlands. Few studies also included direct measurement of biogeochemical processes within wetlands of elements that were part of simultaneous input-output investigations. The importance of uncertainties in chemical budgets that are due to uncertainties in hydrologic budgets has been addressed in very few wetland investigations.