An approach to the field study of hydraulic gradients in variable-salinity ground water

Ground Water
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Abstract

A field study approach is proposed for reliably estimating hydraulic gradients in subregions within a region of variable-salinity ground water. It is based upon Hubbert's concept about the kind of density distributions that are required for ground water to have a potential. The approach consists of dividing a region of variable-salinity ground water into subregions with constant density, subregions with only vertical variations in density, and subregions with vertical and lateral variations in density before determining magnitude and direction of hydraulic gradients. The approach was applied to an unconfined coastal aquifer and also to a confined and layered coastal aquifer that is used for sub-surface injection. As the two applications show, the analysis of water levels and pressures from subregions with constant or approximately constant density and the analysis of pressures from subregions with only vertical variations in density provide simple and direct means for deducing the characteristics of hydraulic gradients within a region of variable-salinity ground water.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title An approach to the field study of hydraulic gradients in variable-salinity ground water
Series title Ground Water
DOI 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1989.tb01974.x
Volume 27
Issue 4
Year Published 1989
Language English
Publisher Wiley
Contributing office(s) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program
Description 9 p.
First page 531
Last page 539
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