Origin of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic systematics in high-Sr basalts from central Arizona

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

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Alkalic and tholeiitic basalts were erupted in the central Arizona Transition Zone during Miocene-Pliocene time before and after regional faulting. The alkalic lava types differ from the subalkaline lavas in Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios and trace element ratios and, despite close temporal and spatial relationships, the two types appear to be from discrete mantle sources. Pre-faulting lava types include: potassic trachybasalts (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7052 to 0.7055, e{open}Nd= -9.2 to -10.7); alkali olivine basalts (87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7049 to 0.7054, e{open}Nd= -2 to 0.2); basanite and hawaiites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049 to 0.7053, e{open}Nd= -3.5 to -7.8); and quartz tholeiites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7047, e{open}Nd= -1.4 to -2.6). Post-faulting lavas have lower 87Sr/86Sr (<0.7045) and e{open}Nd from -3.2 to 2.3. Pb isotopic data for both preand post-faulting lavas form coherent clusters by magma type with values higher than those associated with MORB but within the range of values found for crustal rocks and sulfide ores in Arizona and New Mexico. Pb isotopic systematics appear to be dominated by crustal contamination. Effects of assimilation and fractional crystallization are inadequate to produce the Sr isotopic variations unless very large amounts of assimilation occurred relative to fractionation. It is impossible to produce the Nd isotopic variations unless ancient very unradiogenic material exists beneath the region. Moreover the assumption that the alkalic lavas are cogenetic requires high degrees of fractionation inconsistent with major- and trace-element data. Metasomatism of the subcontinental lithosphere above a subduction zone by a slab-derived fluid enriched in Sr, Ba, P and K could have produced the isotopic and elemental patterns. The degree of metasomatism apparently decreased upward, with the alkalic lavas sampling more modified regions of the mantle than the tholeiitic lavas. Such metasomatism may have been a regional event associated with crustal formation at about 1.6 Ga. Disruption and weakening of the subcontinental lithosphere in the Transition Zone of the Colorado Plateau by volcanism probably made deformation possible. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

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Origin of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic systematics in high-Sr basalts from central Arizona
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