The combined XAD-8 and XAD-4 resin procedure for the isolation of dissolved organic solutes from water was found to isolate 85% or more of the organic solutes from Lake Skjervatjern in Norway. Approximately 65% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was first removed on XAD-8 resin, and then an additional 20% of the DOC was removed on XAD-4 resin. Approximately 15% of the DOC solutes (primarily hydrophilic neutrals) were not sorbed or concentrated by the procedure. Of the 65% of the solutes removed on XAD-8 resin, 40% were fulvic acids, 16% were humic acids, and 9% were hydrophobic neutrals. Approximately 20% of the hydrophilic solutes that pass through the XAD-8 resin were sorbed solutes on the second resin, XAD-4 (i.e., they were hydrophobic relative to the XAD-4 resin). The fraction sorbed on XAD-4 resin was called XAD-4 acids because it represented approximately 85-90% of the hydrophilic XAD-8 acid fraction according to the original XAD-8 fractionation procedure. The recovery of hydrophobic acids (fulvic acids and humic acids) and the hydrophobic neutral fraction from XAD-8 resin was essentially quantitative at 96%, 98%, and 86%, respectively. The recovery of XAD-4 acids from the XAD-4 resin was only about 50%. The exact reason for this moderately low recovery is unknown, but could result from ??-?? bonding between these organic solutes and the aromatic matrix of XAD-4. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic solute separation on XAD-8 resin for water from background Side A and Side B of the lake was almost identical at 65 and 67%, respectively. This result suggested that both sides of the lake are similar in organic chemical composition even though the DOC variation from side to side is 20%.
Additional publication details
Quantitative evaluation of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins used in tandem for removing organic solutes from water