The UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotopic systematics of mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks and associated megacrystic inclusions of aluminous augite and garnet, that occur in three alkalic volcanic suites: Kuandian in eastern Liaoning Province, Hanluoba in Hebei Province, and Minxi in western Fujian Province, China are described. In various isotopic data plots, the inclusion data invariably fall outside the isotopic ranges displayed by the host volcanic rocks, testifying to the true xenolithic nature of the inclusions. The major element partitioning data on Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al among the coexisting silicate minerals of the xenoliths establish their growth at ambient mantle temperatures of 1000-1100??C and possible depths of 70-80 km in the subcontinental lithosphere. Although the partitioning of these elements reflects equilibrium between coexisting minerals, equilibria of the Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic systems among the minerals were not preserved. The disequilibria are most notable with respect to the 206Pb 204Pb ratios of the minerals. On a NdSr isotopic diagram, the inclusion data plot in a wider area than that for oceanic basalts from a distinctly more depleted component than MORB with higher 143Nd 144Nd and a much broader range of 87Sr 86Sr values, paralleling the theoretical trajectory of a sea-water altered lithosphere in NdSr space. The garnets consistently show lower ?? and ?? values than the pyroxenes and pyroxenites, whereas a phlogopite shows the highest ?? and ?? values among all the minerals and rocks studied. In a plot of ??207 and ??208, the host basalts for all three areas show lower ??207 and higher ??208 values than do the xenoliths, indicating derivation of basalts from Th-rich (relative to U) sources and xenoliths from U-rich sources. The xenolith data trends toward the enriched mantle components, EMI and EMII-like, characterized by high 87Sr 86Sr and ??207 values but with slightly higher 143Nd 144Nd. The EMI trend is shown more distinctly by the host basalts. The EMII mantle domain may be present in the Chinese continental lithosphere just above the EMI domain of the basalt source at the lower part of the lithosphere. We argue that the ancient depleted continental lithosphere was metasomatized, imparting the EMI signature, in earlier times ( > 1000 m.y.), and U migrated upward, resulting in high Th U ratios in the lower portion of the lithosphere. Observed high Th U, Rb Sr, 87Sr 86Sr and ??208, low Sm Nd ratios, and a large negative ??Nd in phlogopite pyroxenite with a depleted mantle model age of 2.9 Ga, support our contention that metasomatized continental lower mantle lithosphere is the source for the EMI component. We also suggest that the EMII signature may have been introduced later (less than ??? 500 Ma) by another metasomatic event during the subduction of an oceanic plate, which was partially responsible for some of the observed inter-mineral isotopic disequilibria. ?? 1992.