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Evaluation of the energy budget method of determining evaporation at Williams Lake, Minnesota, using alternative instrumentation and study approaches

Water Resources Research

By:
, , and
https://doi.org/10.1029/93WR00743

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Abstract

Best estimates of evaporation at Williams Lake, north central Minnesota, were determined by the energy budget method using optimum sensors and optimum placement of sensors. These best estimates are compared with estimates derived from using substitute data to determine the effect of using less accurate sensors, simpler methods, or remotely measured data. Calculations were made for approximately biweekly periods during five open water seasons. For most of the data substitutions that affected the Bowen ratio, new values of evaporation differed little from best estimates. The three data substitution methods that caused the largest deviations from the best evaporation estimates were (1) using changes in the daily average surface water temperature as an indicator of the lake heat storage term, (2) using shortwave radiation, air temperature, and atmospheric vapor pressure data from a site 110 km away, and (3) using an analog surface water temperature probe. Recalculations based on these data substitutions resulted in differences from the best estimates as much as 89%, 21%, and 10%, respectively. The data substitution method that provided evaporation values that most closely matched the best estimates was measurement of the lake heat storage term at one location in the lake, rather than at 16 locations. Evaporation values resulting from this substitution method usually were within 2% of the best estimates.

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Additional publication details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Evaluation of the energy budget method of determining evaporation at Williams Lake, Minnesota, using alternative instrumentation and study approaches
Series title:
Water Resources Research
DOI:
10.1029/93WR00743
Volume:
29
Issue:
8
Year Published:
1993
Language:
English
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Description:
11 p.
First page:
2473
Last page:
2483
Country:
United States
State:
Minnesota
Other Geospatial:
Williams Lake