The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW finite-difference ground-water flow model has been coupled with three surface-water packages - the MODBRANCH, River, and Stream packages - to simulate surface water and its interaction with ground water. Prior to the development of the coupling packages, the only interaction between these modeling packages was that leakage values could be passed between MODFLOW and the three surface-water packages. To facilitate wider and more flexible uses of the models, a computer program was developed and added to MODFLOW to allow direct flows or stages to be passed between any of the packages and MODFLOW. The flows or stages calculated in one package can be set as boundary discharges or stages to be used in another package. Several modeling packages can be used in the same simulation depending upon the level of sophistication needed in the various reaches being modeled. This computer program is especially useful when any of the River, Stream, or MODBRANCH packages are used to model a river flowing directly into or out of wetlands in direct connection with the aquifer and represented in the model as an aquifer block. A field case study is shown to illustrate an application.
Additional publication details
Implementation and use of direct-flow connections in a coupled ground-water and surface-water model