Concentrations of dissolved ions from samples collected by wet/dry collectors were compared to those collected by bulk collectors at Halfmoon Creek and Ned Wilson Lake in western Colorado to determine if bulk collectors can be used to monitor wet deposition chemistry in remote, high-altitude regions in winter. Hydrogen-ion concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the bulk collectors. All other ion concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the bulk collectors except for ammonium (p > 0.05) at Halfmoon Creek. Wet deposition concentrations were predicated from bulk deposition concentrations through linear regression analysis. Results indicate that anions (chloride, nitrate and sulfate) can be predicted with a high degree of confidence. Lack of significant differences between seasonal (winter and summer) ratios of bulk to wet deposition concentrations indicates that at sites where operation of a wet/dry collector during the winter is not practical, wet deposition concentrations can be predicted from bulk collector samples through regression analysis of wet and bulk deposition data collected during the summer.
Additional publication details
The use of bulk collectors in monitoring wet deposition at high-altitude sites in winter