A method was developed for determining benzocaine and N-acetylbenzocaine concentrations in fillet tissue of rainbow trout. The method involves extracting the analytes with acetonitrile, removing lipids or hydrophobic compounds from the extract with hexane, and providing additional clean-up with solid-phase extraction techniques. Analyte concentrations are determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic techniques with an isocratic mobile phase and UV detection. The accuracy (range, 92 to 121%), precision (R.S.D., <14%), and sensitivity (method quantitation limit, <24 ng/g) for each analyte indicate the usefulness of this method for studies characterizing the depletion of benzocaine residues from fish exposed to benzocaine. Copyright (C) 1999.