Relative abundance, timing of breeding and molting, annual survival, and philopatry of an introduced population of Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) were studied at four sites on the island of Hawaii. Numbers of leiothrix on our study areas showed a regular cyclical pattern, with highest numbers during the breeding season. Peak breeding occurred May-August, followed by peak molting of flight and body feathers in August-October. Flocking behavior increased post-breeding, and many leiothrix left the study areas during the fall and winter months. Populations on two intensive study areas were stable, with high annual survival (x ?? SE = 0.581 ?? 0.115 for hatching-year birds and 0.786 ?? 0.047 for adults). Leiothrix seem to be relatively unaffected by avian diseases that have decimated some Hawaiian bird populations, and yet reasons for their large historical population fluctuations remain unexplained.
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Demography of an introduced red-billed Leiothrix population in Hawaii