We evaluated the efficacy of a 1-m2 quadrat sampler for collecting riffle-dwelling fishes in an Ozark stream. We used a dual-gear approach to evaluate sampler efficiency in relation to species, fish size, and habitat variables. Quasi-likelihood regression showed sampling efficiency to differ significantly (P < 0.001) among species of four common fish families (Cyprinidae, Ictaluridae, Cottidae, and Percidae) but not among species within each family (P > 0.05). Sampling efficiency was significantly influenced by physical habitat characteristics. Mean current velocity negatively influenced sampling efficiencies for Cyprinidae (P = 0.009), Cottidae (P = 0.006), and Percidae (P < 0.001), and the amount of cobble substrate negatively influenced sampling efficiencies for Cyprinidae (P = 0.025), Ictaluridae (P < 0.001), and Percidae (P < 0.001). Water temperature negatively influenced sampling efficiency for Cyprinidae (P = 0.009) and Ictaluridae (P = 0.006). Species-richness efficiency was positively influenced (P = 0.002) by percentage of riffle sampled. Under average habitat conditions encountered in stream riffles, the 1-m2 quadrat sampler was most efficient at estimating the densities of Cyprinidae (84%) and Cottidae (80%) and least efficient for Percidae (57%) and Ictaluridae (31%).