A conceptual model of the geometry and dynamics of the Mount Spurr magmatic system is developed using seismic, geochemical, and visual observations of the 1992 Crater Peak eruption sequence. The basis for this model is a new classification of all located seismic events and results from prior studies of seismology, geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Mount Spurr area. Significant seismic features of the 1992 eruption sequence include (1) a distinct swarm of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes in August 1991 directly beneath the Crater Peak vent, (2) a caldera-wide increase in VT earthquakes, lasting 7 months, which preceded the 27 June eruption, (3) two shallow swarms of VT earthquakes that occured on 5 June and 27 June, the latter immediately preceding the 27 June eruption, (4) a mix of VT, long-period (LP), and hybrid events at depths of 20-40 km, which began coincident with the onset of seismic unrest and reached a peak after eruptive activity ended, (5) a strong swarm of VT earthquakes that began as the 16-17 September eruption was ending, (6) a prominent swarm of VT earthquakes on 9-10 November at depths of 1 to 4 km beneath Crater Peak, and (7) a smaller swarm of VT earthquakes in late December 1992, which were located between 7 and 10 km depth. These seismic observations, combined with geological, geochemical, and geophysical data and observations, suggest a deep magmatic source zone for Crater Peak andesites at depths of 20-40 km, a smaller mid-crustal storage zone at about 10 km depth, and a conduit that extends to the surface. We infer that the magmas erupted in 1992 were generated at depths of 20-40 km and rose to the mid-crustal storage zone that fed all three 1992 eruptions. The 1992 eruption sequence may have terminated when additional magma solidified at shallow depths.
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A conceptual model of the Mount Spurr magmatic system from seismic and geochemical observations of the 1992 Crater Peak eruption sequence