The effect of pre-existing factors, e.g., hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological properties, on the results of oxygen addition to a reformulated gasoline-contaminated groundwater system was studied. Oxygen addition with an oxygen-release compound (a proprietary form of magnesium peroxide produced different results with respect to dissolved oxygen (DO) generation and contaminant decrease in the two locations. Oxygen-release compound injected at the former UST source area did not significantly change measured concentrations of DO, benzene, toluene, or MTBE. Conversely, oxygen-release compound injected 200 m downgradient of the former UST source area rapidly increased DO levels, and benzene, toluene, and MTBE concentrations decreased substantially. The different results could be related to differences in hydrologic and geochemical conditions that characterized the two locations prior to oxygen addition. The lack of recharge to ground water in the paved UST source area led to a much larger geochemical sink for DO compared to ground water in the unpaved area.