Digital, aerial orthophotomosaics with 0.5-3.0 m horizontal accuracy, used with NOAA topographic maps (T-sheets), document past shoreline positions on Maui Island, Hawaii. Outliers in the shoreline position database are determined using a least median of squares regression. Least squares linear regression of the reweighted data (outliers excluded) is used to determine a shoreline trend termed the reweighted linear squares (RLS). To determine the annual erosion hazard rate (AEHR) for use by shoreline managers the RLS data is smoothed in the longshore direction using a weighted moving average five transects wide with the smoothed rate applied to the center transect. Weightings within each five transect group are 1,3,5,3,1. AEHR's (smoothed RLS values) are plotted on a 1:3000 map series for use by shoreline managers and planners. These maps are displayed on the web for public reference at http://www.co.maui.hi.us/ departments/Planning/erosion.htm. An end-point rate of change is also calculated using the earliest T-sheet and the latest collected shoreline (1997 or 2002). The resulting database consists of 3565 separate erosion rates spaced every 20 m along 90 km of sandy shoreline. Three regions are analyzed: Kihei, West Maui, and North Shore coasts. The Kihei Coast has an average AEHR of about 0.3 m/yr, an end point rate (EPR) of 0.2 m/yr, 2.8 km of beach loss and 19 percent beach narrowing in the period 1949-1997. Over the same period the West Maui coast has an average AEHR of about 0.2 m/yr, an average EPR of about 0.2 m/yr, about 4.5 km of beach loss and 25 percent beach narrowing. The North Shore has an average AEHR of about 0.4 m/yr, an average EPR of about 0.3 m/yr, 0.8 km of beach loss and 15 percent beach narrowing. The mean, island-wide EPR of eroding shorelines is 0.24 m/yr and the average AEHR of eroding shorelines is about 0.3 m/yr. The overall shoreline change rate, erosion and accretion included, as measured using the unsmoothed RLS technique is 0.21 m/yr. Island wide changes in beach width show a 19 percent decrease over the period 1949/ 1950 to 1997/2002. Island-wide, about 8 km of dry beach has been lost since 1949 (i.e., high water against hard engineering structures and natural rock substrate).
Additional publication details
Mapping Shoreline Change Using Digital Orthophotogrammetry on Maui, Hawaii