The effects of a 12-h exposure to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) and a combination of TFM and 1% niclosamide (active ingredient in Bayluscide 70% wettable powder) on the short and long-term (10 mo post exposure) survival and behavior of two unionid freshwater mussel species Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta were measured. Growth of juvenile E. complanata mussels 10 months after exposure was also compared. Toxicity was determined after 12 h exposures at maximum concentrations from 2- to 2.5- fold higher than the LC99 for sea lamprey larvae. A logistic model was used to estimate the probability of survival among treatments, trials, species, and sizes. Mortality was minimal in all test concentrations of TFM alone and the TFM/1% niclosamide combination. Estimated survival decreased 6% for each unit increase in the relative toxicity of TFM. Survival was greater for E. complanata than for P. cataracta, and for adults relative to juveniles. Lampricide treatment caused narcotization of both mussels (defined as having gaped shells and an extended foot) in concentrations ??? LC99 for sea lamprey larvae and narcotization ranged from 0-50% among treatments. Recovery from narcosis was apparent by 12 h post-exposure and complete by 36 h post-exposure. The rate of growth of E. complanata over the 10-month post-exposure period did not vary among treatments.