Rivers carry the products of continental weathering, and continuously supply the oceans with a broad range of chemical constituents. This erosional signature is, however, uniquely moderated by biogeochemical processing within estuaries. Estuaries are commonly described as complex filters at land-sea margins, where significant transformations can occur due to strong physico-chemical gradients. These changes differ for different classes of elements, and can vary widely depending on the geographic location. U- and Th-series nuclides include a range of elements with vastly different characteristics and behaviors within such environments, and the isotopic systematics provide methods for investigating the transport of these nuclides and other analog species across estuaries and into the coastal ocean.