Since twice as much C is sequestered in soils as is contained in the atmosphere, the factors controlling the decomposition rate of soil C are important to the assessment of the effects of climatic change. The formation of chemically resistant humic substances might be an important process controlling recycling of CO2 to the atmosphere. Our objectives were to measure the rate of formation and loss of humic substances during 13 yr of litter decomposition. We placed nets on the floor of a white pine (Pinus strobus) forest to separate each annual layer of litter for 13 yr and measured humic substance concentration using NaOH extraction followed by chromatographic fractionation. The humic acid fraction increased from 2.1% of the C in litterfall to 15.7% after 1 yr. On a grams per square meter (g m-2) basis the humic substance fraction increased during the first year and then declined, with a half decay time (t1/2) of 5.1 yr, which was significantly slower than the bulk litter (t1/2 = 3.9 yr). The carboxylic C concentration estimated from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) increased in the litter over time, though total mass of carboxylic acid C in the forest floor also declined over the 13-yr period (t1/2 = 4.6 yr). While humic substances in the forest floor decomposed at a somewhat slower rate than bulk litter during Years 1 to 13, they decomposed much faster than has been calculated from 14C dating of the refractory fraction of organic matter in the mineral soil.