Conjunctive-management models that couple numerical simulation with linear optimization were developed to evaluate trade-offs between groundwater withdrawals and streamflow depletions for alluvial-valley stream-aquifer systems representative of those of the northeastern United States. A conjunctive-management model developed for a hypothetical stream-aquifer system was used to assess the effect of interannual hydrologic variability on minimum monthly streamflow requirements. The conjunctive-management model was applied to the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt stream-aquifer system of central Rhode Island. Results show that it is possible to increase the amount of current withdrawal from the aquifer by as much as 50% by modifying current withdrawal schedules, modifying the number and configuration of wells in the supply-well network, or allowing increased streamflow depletion in the Annaquatucket and Pettaquamscutt rivers. Alternatively, it is possible to reduce current rates of streamflow depletion in the Hunt River by as much as 35% during the summer, but such reductions would result increases in groundwater withdrawals.