An extensive time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey covering the Sea of Galilee with a dense grid of points has been recently carried out. A total of 269 offshore and 33 supplementary onshore TDEM soundings were performed along six N-S and ten W-E profiles and at selected points both offshore and onshore along the whole coastal line. The interpreted resistivities were calibrated with the direct salinity measurements in the Haon-2 borehole and relatively deep (5 m) cores taken from the lake bottom. It was found that resistivities below 1 ohm-m are solely indicative of groundwater salinity exceeding 10,000 mg Cl/l. Such low resistivities (high salinities) were detected at depths greater than 15 m below almost the entire bottom of the lake. At some parts of the lake, particularly in the south, the saline water was detected at shallower depths, sometimes at a few meters below the bottom. Relatively high resistivity (fresh groundwater) was found along the margins of the lake down to roughly 100 m, the maximum exploration depth of the system. The detected sharp lateral contrasts at the lake margin between high and low resistivities coincide with the faults separating the carbonate and clastic units, respectively. The geometry of the fresh/saline groundwater interface below the central part of the lake is very similar to the shape of the lake bottom, probably due to the diffusive salt transport from the bottom sediments to the lake water. The above geophysical observations suggest differentsalt transport mechanisms from the sediments to the central part of the lake (diffusion) and from regional aquifers to the margins of the lake (advection). ?? 2004 Science From Israel/LPPLtd.
Additional publication details
Mapping saline groundwater beneath the Sea Galilee and its vicinity using time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) geophysical technique