Spectral measurements made in the Mordor Pound, NT, Australia study area using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), in the laboratory and in situ show dominantly Al-OH and ferric-iron VNIR-SWIR absorption features in felsic rock spectra and ferrous-iron and Fe,Mg-OH features in the mafic-ultramafic rock spectra. ASTER ratio images, matched-filter, and spectral-angle mapper processing (SAM) were evaluated for mapping the lithologies. Matched-filter processing in which VNIR + SWIR image spectra were used for reference resulted in 4 felsic classes and 4 mafic-ultramafic classes based on Al-OH or Fe,Mg-OH absorption features and, in some, subtle reflectance differences related to differential weathering and vegetation. These results were similar to those obtained by match-filter analysis of HyMap data from a previous study, but the units were more clearly demarcated in the HyMap image. ASTER TIR spectral emittance data and laboratory emissivity measurements document a wide wavelength range of Si-O spectral features, which reflect the lithological diversity of the Mordor ultramafic complex and adjacent rocks. SAM processing of the spectral emittance data distinguished 2 classes representing the mafic-ultramafic rocks and 4 classes comprising the quartzose to intermediate composition rocks. Utilization of the complementary attributes of the spectral reflectance and spectral emittance data resulted in discrimination of 4 mafic-ultramafic categories; 3 categories of alluvial-colluvial deposits; and a significantly more completely mapped quartzite unit than could be accomplished by using either data set alone. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.