Induction of androgenesis and gynogenesis by applying a pressure (PS) or heat shock (HS) to double the haploid chromosomal set results in progenies possessing only chromosomes from a single parent. This has never been accomplished in representatives of Agnatha. The objective of this study was to induce gynogenesis and androgenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. For gynogenesis experiments, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated sperm was used to activate sea lamprey eggs and HS or PS were applied to inhibit the second meiotic division and consequently induce diploidy in the embryos. The UV irradiation of immobilized sperm was performed for 1 min at 1,719 J m-2. HS of 35 ?? 1??C for 2 min and PS of 9,000 psi for 4 min were applied at different times after egg activation (8, 12, 20, and 24 min or 8, 16, and 24 min for HS or PS, respectively). Regardless of the induction time of the HS, survivals at pre-hatching stage were similar. In contrast, PS applied 8 min after activation appears to increase survival rate of pre-hatched embryos in comparison to 16 and 24 min after activation. In control groups, without shock treatment (no diploidization), there were no survivors. All deformed, gynogenetic embryos were confirmed to be haploids and died prior to burying themselves in the sand. We confirmed by flow cytometry that progenies produced using both shock methods surviving to the next stage, burying in the substrate, were diploid gynogenetic. For the androgenesis experiments, UV-irradiated eggs (1,719 J m-2 for 1 min) were fertilized with non-treated sperm and HS was applied to restore diploidy of the eggs. Several attempts have been made to optimize the parameters used. HS of 35 ?? 1??C was applied 110, 140, 170, 200, and 230 min after activation for 2 min. Low yields of androgens were obtained and all animals died within a week after hatching. These techniques will allow to establish meiotic gynogenetic lines of sea lamprey for determining sex differentiation in this species and to analyze its hormonal and environmental regulation. ?? 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.