A battery powered submersible chemical analyzer, the Zn-DigiScan (Zn Digital Submersible Chemical Analyzer), has been developed for near real-time, in situ monitoring of zinc in aquatic systems. Microprocessor controlled solenoid pumps propel sample and carrier through an anion exchange column to separate zinc from interferences, add colorimetric reagents, and propel the reaction complex through a simple photometric detector. The Zn-DigiScan is capable of self-calibration with periodic injections of standards and blanks. The detection limit with this approach was 30 ??g L-1. Precision was 5-10% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) below 100 ??g L-1, improving to 1% R.S.D. at 1000 ??g L-1. The linear range extended from 30 to 3000 ??g L-1. In situ field results were in agreement with samples analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). This pump technology is quite versatile and colorimetric methods with complex online manipulations such as column reduction, preconcentration, and dilution can be performed with the DigiScan. However, long-term field deployments in shallow high altitude streams were hampered by air bubble formation in the photometric detector. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Development of a solenoid pumped in situ zinc analyzer for environmental monitoring