The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.