Based on the equation of state of water (EOSW), experimental pressure in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) using pure water or dilute aqueous solutions as a pressure medium can be accurately determined at each measured temperature. Consequently, meaningful interpretations can be obtained for observations in the HDAC, which has been widely accepted as a versatile, modern apparatus for hydrothermal experiments. However, this is not true when other pressure media were used because there is no reliable way to determine experimental pressure other than the use of in situ pressure sensors. Most of the available pressure sensors are difficult to apply because they either require expensive facilities to perform the measurements or are unable to provide the accuracy needed for the interpretation of hydrothermal experiments. The only exception is to use the interferometric method to detect the ??-?? quartz transition, although such applications are limited to temperatures above 573??C. In this study, three pressure calibrants were calibrated for applications at lower temperatures, and they were based on visual observation of the ferroelastic phase transitions in BaTiO3 (tetragonal/cubic), Pb3(PO4)2 (monoclinic/trigonal), and PbTiO3 (tetragonal/cubic). For the phase transitions in BaTiO3 and Pb3(PO4)2, the temperature at which twinning disappears during heating was taken as the transition temperature (Ttr); the phase transition pressures (Ptr) can be calculated, respectively, from Ptr (MPa; ??3%) = 0.17 - 21.25 [(Ttr) - 115.3], and Ptr (MPa; ??2%) = 1.00 - 10.62 [(Ttr) - 180.2], where Ttr is in ??C. For the phase transition in PbTiO3, the temperature at which the movement of phase front begins (or ends) on heating (or cooling) was taken as the transition temperature (Ttr,h or Ttr,c), and the phase transition pressures on heating (Ptr,h) and cooling (Ptr,c) can be calculated from Ptr,h (MPa; ??4%) = 7021.7 - 14.235 (Ttr,h), and Ptr,c (MPa; ??4%) = 6831.3 - 14.001 (Ttr,c). Phase transitions for these three pressure calibrants are easy to detect visually, and their P-T phase boundaries have negative slopes and intersect isochors of most of the geologic fluids at high angles and, therefore, are easy to apply. Copyright ?? 2007 by V. H. Winston & Son, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Pressure calibrants in the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell