Geomorphic and topographic relations of higher and lower levels of dissection within the Simud and Tiu Valles outflow channels on Mars reveal new insights into their formational histories. We find that the water floods that carved the higher channel floors were primarily sourced from Hydaspis Chaos. The floods apparently branched into distributaries downstream that promoted rapid freezing and sublimation of water and limited discharge into the lowlands. In contrast, we suggest that the lower outflow channels were carved by debris flows from Hydraotes Chaos. Surges within individual debris flows possessed variable volatile contents and led to the deposition of smooth deposits marked by low relief longitudinal ridges. Lower outflow channel discharges resulted in widespread deposition within the Simud/Tiu Valles as well as within the northern plains of Mars. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
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Nature and characteristics of the flows that carved the Simud and Tiu outflow channels, Mars