For more than a decade, environmental, engineering, groundwater, and shallow stratigraphic studies have demonstrated and advanced the usefulness of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in lithified and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits (e.g., see Neal, 2004 and references therein). Despite the advances, important questions still remain on factors that control the actual appearance and characteristics of GPR reflections and diffractions in any given setting. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.