Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

Natural Areas Journal
By: , and 



We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges
Series title Natural Areas Journal
DOI 10.3375/0885-8608(2006)26[47:CTBCAO]2.0.CO;2
Volume 26
Issue 1
Year Published 2006
Language English
Publisher Natural Areas Association
Contributing office(s) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Description 6 p.
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Natural Areas Journal
First page 47
Last page 52
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