A major challenge in ecotoxicology lies in generating data under experimental conditions that are relevant to understanding contaminant effects in nature. Biodynamic modeling combines species-specific physiological traits to make predictions of metal bioaccumulation that fare well when tested in the field. We generated biodynamic models for seven predatory stonefly (Plecoptera) species representing the families Perlidae (5) and Perlodidae (2). Each taxon was exposed to cadmium independently via diet and via solution. Species varied approximately 2.6 fold in predicted steady-state cadmium concentrations. Diet was the predominant source of accumulated cadmium in five of the seven species and averaged 53.2 ?? 9.6% and 90.2 ?? 3.7% of net Cd accumulation in perlids and perlodids, respectively. Differences in Cd bioaccumulation between the two families were largely driven by differences in dissolved accumulation rates, which were considerably slower in perlodids than in perlids. We further examined the subcellular compartmentalization of Cd accumulated from independent aqueous and dietary exposures. Predicted steady-state concentrations were modified to only consider Cd accumulated in metal-sensitive subcellular compartments. These values ranged 5.3 fold. We discuss this variability within a phylogenetic context and its implications for bioassessment. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.