Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) images , collected over Sioux Falls, South Dakota, were used to quantify the effect of spectral response on different surface materials and to develop spectral "figures-of-merit" for spectral responses covering similar, but not identical spectral bands. In this simulation, AVIRIS images were converted to radiance, then spectrally resampled to six wavelength bands commonly used for terrestrial observation. Preliminary results indicate that differences between the simulations can be attributed to variations in surface reflectance within spectral bands, and suggest influences due to water vapor absorption. Radiance simulated from the spectrally narrow Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Relative Spectral Responses (RSR) was generally higher than that using the broader Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) RSRs over most targets encountered over the test area. This is consistent with many MODIS bands being biased toward shorter wavelengths compared to corresponding ETM+ bands when viewing targets whose radiance decreases with wavelength. In some cases the higher radiance values appeared to occur where the MODIS RSR is better situated over peak reflected wavelengths. Simulation differences between MODIS & ETM+ bands in the near-infrared indicated higher MODIS radiance values that suggest the influence of water vapor absorption at 820 nanometers. This result agreed with water vapor values retrieved from the AVIRIS images themselves at around 2.7 cm precipitable water, and measurements made at a nearby AERONET node at around 2.8cm during the AVIRIS overflight ?? 2007 IEEE.